Отчёт о состоянии лицензирования профессий в США
. Весь ещё не читал, но из executive summary:
More than one-quarter of U.S. workers now require a license to do their jobs, with most
of these workers licensed by the States. The share of workers licensed at the State level
has risen five-fold since the 1950s.
About two-thirds of this change stems from an increase in the number of professions that
require a license, with the remaining growth coming from changing composition of the
Licensing laws also lead to higher prices for goods and services, with research showing
effects on prices of between 3 and 16 percent. Moreover, in a number of other studies,
licensing did not increase the quality of goods and services, suggesting that consumers
are sometimes paying higher prices without getting improved goods or services.
Estimates suggest that over 1,100 occupations are regulated in at least one State, but
fewer than 60 are regulated in all 50 States, showing substantial differences in which
occupations States choose to regulate.
States also have very different requirements for obtaining a license. For example,
Michigan requires three years of education and training to become a licensed security
guard, while most other States require only 11 days or less. South Dakota, Iowa, and
Nebraska require 16 months of education to become a licensed cosmetologist, while New
York and Massachusetts require less than 8 months.